The meadow pipit – Anthus pratensis is a small passerine bird which breeds in much of northwestern Eurasia, from southeastern Greenland and Iceland east to just east of the Ural Mountains in Russia, and south to central France and Romania. It is migratory over most of its range, wintering in Southern Europe, North Africa and Southwestern Asia, but is resident year-round in Western Europe. However, even here, many birds move to the coast or lowlands in winter. This is a widespread and often abundant small pipit, 14.5–15 cm long and 15–22 g weight.
The meadow pipit is a species of open habitats, either uncultivated or low-intensity agriculture, such as pasture, bogs, and moorland, but also occurs in low numbers in arable croplands. In winter, it also uses saltmarshes and sometimes open woodlands. It is a fairly terrestrial pipit, always feeding on the ground, but will use elevated perches such as shrubs, fence lines or electricity wires as vantage points to watch for predators. Its food is mainly insects and other invertebrates, mostly small items less than 5 mm long. It also eats the seeds of grasses, sedges, rushes and heather, and crowberry berries, mainly in winter.